The continents of Chydar and Estin have a long and fascinating history.
Rather than rewrite this history yet again, we will rather present selected
essays which we feel are of patricular importance.
The first such essay was recorded long ago, by the renowned sage Erquineoller. Our comments follow after the text, which has been left unchanged.
Today Viewed Through Yesterday
Being a brief treatise on the history of Chydar and Estin
Recorded in the year 3467I by Sage Erquineoller the Wise
Hence, our tour will attempt to touch the important events, in an unbiased fashion. A first reading may be confusing, as not all the players can be introduced before they turn up elsewhere. For example, the Kilvar figure prominently in the history of the Sidhe of Lir, but their story is not recorded until later in the document. The timeline included at the end of the document may prove helpful for sorting out the various relations.
Before we begin, it should be noted that there are two dating systems currently in use. The first is Innereal, which is denoted as I (eg. 3200I). The origins of the Innereal scale have been forgotten, and there are as many theories as there are sages with theories. The second is the more recent Flanndis, which is denoted as F (eg. 30F). The Flanndis scale is not generally used or recognized outside the Flanndis Empire; thus the dates given within are given exclusively in the Innereal scale. There is evidence that the Sidhe have their own calendar, but little is known of the details.
The Sidhe of LirThe history of the Sidhe of Lir is somewhat of a mystery. No-one knows when the Sidhe arrived on Estin, or where they came from. The Sidhe may know, but if they do, they choose not to tell. It is known that they did not originate in the northern forests they now inhabit, and that they have been there for at least a thousand years. There are those who claim to have evidence that the Sidhe have resided in Lir for much longer than that, although such claims are almost always easily disproven. What follows may not all be true, but it is consistent with what is known, and with what is generally accepted as true.
The Sidhe arrived by sea from somewhere south of Estin about 1500 years ago (circa 1900I). Both the form of the ships and the method of their manufacture have been lost through time, although they are believed to have been quite magnificent even by today's standards. Popular myth holds that the Sidhe were fleeing something, possibly persecution or war, but there are no facts to back this opinion, apart from their sudden arrival on the historical scene. They may simply have tired of the scenery, and departed to find a new home; however, as we will see, this seems unlikely.
The forests of Lir were at that time unoccupied, or at most sparsely populated. The Sidhe had very little difficulty establishing themselves as the undisputed rulers of the entire northern peninsula, as far south as the foothills of the Tine Mountains, where they lived in almost total isolation for a thousand years, growing their tree-homes and writing ballads and epic poems about their lost homeland. A study of these works would likely reveal much more of the Sidhe history; unfortunately (from an artistic as well as historic perspective), only a very few have been performed for outsiders. Those fortunate enough to have witnessed such a performance cannot afterward recall any particulars, but most recall that there was a sense of profound sadness.
During their period of self-imposed isolation, the Sidhe saw very little of humans, and less of the other races. They were virtually self-sufficient, and were able to procure all other supplies through occasional trips into Zohmat, where they would trade carvings or paintings. These small works of art quickly became popular throughout the continent, so much so that the Sidhe were forced to erect magical barriers around the forests to keep out the thieves who thought to make a quick fortune. Some of these ancient carvings have been found in tombs of the rich as far away as Tiet and the Spice Isles.
The Sidhe also developed, or possibly simply recreated, a rather unique form of government, found nowhere else in Chydar or Estin. Each Sidhe village, of which there are estimated to be twenty, is governed by a council of seven respected villagers. Any grievances between villagers, or any other internal village affairs, are settled by the council at a monthly meeting. Four times a year, seven of the village councils elect a member to attend a Grand Council, which settles any inter-village disputes, and discusses policies which affect more than a single village. No-one is quite sure how the seven villages are selected, or how they know when they have been selected, although it is suspected that they simply have a schedule drawn up which ensures that all villages will have equal representation on the Grand Council. At the end of the year, all members of all councils meet to vote on any policies or other decisions deemed too important to be settled by a single Grand Council. This event is generally surrounded by the Sidhe celebration of the new year in mid-summer, which is considered to be the birthday of all Sidhe.
In 3189I, word reached the councils of the Sidhe that a band of humans had landed on the east coast. The protective spells were designed only to keep out those of malicious intent, so the Sidhe assumed that the newcomers intended them no harm. The winter passed, and the humans remained near the coast. The Grand Councils discussed the intrusion at great length, but it was deemed that and decision should be left for the Summer Council, although some of the villages near the encampment raised small bands of warriors, just in case.
As the snows melted and the rivers swelled with the warmth of spring, a time which usually fills the Sidhe with the joy of new life, the alarm was raised throughout Lir: the humans were on the move. The Sidhe, moving with the slow care common to long-lived races, discussed the situation at the next Grand Council, and decided to send an envoy to determine the intentions of the trespassers, and request that they leave. The envoy was received, but the request was denied.
The Sidhe became angry, and more villages began to gather their forces, although there was no overall defense plan. However, when the attack came, the Sidhe were still not prepared, and many were lost. Even so, it took the meeting of the Summer Council to drive home the uregency of the situation. A decision was quickly made to merge the warriors of all villages into a single army, and the tide was turned. The invaders were driven north, and they fled into the islands.
The First Age of OdicIn 3184I, an ambitious young man by the name of Varnavaler became the chief of the Tribe of Odic in the north-west of Chydar. It is uncertain exactly where Varnavaler was from, but most historians agree that it seems most likely he was raised in the area now known as Kranthe. During the next few years, Varnavaler conducted raids to the east and south, defeating and assimilating numerous small tribes, gaining in power with each new conquest.
Varnavaler quickly ran out of territory to conquer. The plains to the east were vast and mostly unpopulated, creating supply problems larger than the untrained Varnavaler could deal with. To the south lay hills and mountains, again only sparsely populated, which promised little gain. Satisfied that he had conquered the best parts of the world, Varnavaler was satisfied to sit back and administer his territory, which he took to calling the Great Kingdom of Odic.
The Battle of Falgis ValleyIn 3189I, scouts reported a new find to Varnavaler. Following the Caracyn river south into the hills, they had found a valley, inhabited by peaceful farmers. The land was rich and fertile, and Varnavaler knew he must possess it. The army was mobilized, and the valley was invaded.
The natives looked to a council of elders for leadership. The council had no knowledge of war, so they approached the vanguard of the army in complete trust and openness. They were slain to a man. Appalled at this display, the natives panicked and fled south to the end of the valley. The invaders continued their advance, calculated to induce terror.
In the face of almost certain death, a young farmer by the name of Kilvarn took control. The women and children were piled into the few boats they possessed, while the farmers armed themselves with any tools which looked capable of doing damage to the invaders. Battle was joined, and, as expected, the poorly armed and unarmoured natives were slain by the score.
Just when it appeared that the battle was lost, out of desparation was born one of the most powerful workings of magic the world has ever seen. The wrath of the gods was called down, and the entire valley, apart from the area where the defenders were cornered, was lowered, and waters from the lake flooded the area. To this day, the valley is a swamp, except for the blessed hill known as Kilvarn's Stand.
Panicked by this sign of the gods disfavour, Varnavaler and his troops turned to flee, but they were sucked under and drowned. Less than a dozen invaders ever escaped the valley to return to their tribe with news of the defeat. With the death of Varnavaler, the succession was unclear, there being a number of women who had strong claims that their son was the heir. The tribe was weakened and eventually divided by this internal strife, and it was long before they would be reunited. However, once awakened within a people, the lust for power and conquest is slow to fade.
The Flight of KilvarnFollowing the Battle of Falgis Valley, the surviving defenders made their way into the hills, and then north to the mouth of the Caracyn river, where their women and children awaited them. Fearing that another army would follow where the first one failed, and remembering an ancient prophecy stating that "one will rise from our midst and lead us west across the water to a better life", they built a small fleet, and set off west along the coast, travelling at night to avoid detection, stopping daily for provisions. At the point where the coast turns south, they struck out into the ocean, after picking up as many provisions as could be carried.
They had no knowledge of ocean currents, which pushed them north and made the crossing much longer than it needed to be. After nearly ten days at sea, they made landfall on the east coast of Lir. Many of the flimsy ships did not complete the crossing, and barely half of the people who began the trip survived.
After wintering in the protection of the Forests of Lir, Kilvarn lead the remnants of the tribe deeper into the forest, in search of better farmland. They soon ran into the inhabitants of the area, who sent an envoy to request that the newcomers leave. Kilvarn, now suspicious of all outsiders, declined the petition and prepared for an attack.
Despite their lack of battle experience, Kilvarn's folk gained the early advantage. The enemy rallied shortly after midsummer, however, and the tide was turned. Kilvarn and his people were driven north, and they fled into the islands. Kilvarn was slain in the final battle, enabling the others to flee.
When they landed in the islands, Kilvarn's wife, Lhafern, was recognized as the new ruler. She reluctantly agreed to serve as regent until her son, Kilthor, came of age. Lhafern's main contributions were to rename the tribe Kilvar, in honour of her husband, who saved them from certain death time and again, and her strong desire to put the violence behind them and live in peace, but to be prepared and never forget the lessons they had learned. Many years later, through the untiring efforts of Lhafern, and Kilthor after her, there was once again peace and trust between the Kilvar and the Sidhe.
The Second Age of OdicTwo hundred years would pass before the Kingdom of Odic would again raise its head. In 3394I, a chieftain in the same area took the name Varnavaler the Young in memory of the last great conquerer, and began to amass an army by subduing nearby tribes. Several years passed as he consolidated his power.
In 3401I, Varnavaler gathered his armies, and began to push south. He invaded Gledarl, which had become a much more attractive target since the time of the original Varnavaler. Gledarl was quickly, but messily, subdued, and he moved further south into Arcalm. Arcalm's wealth was, as it is today, primarily from trade. The Calimites felt it was in their best interest to surrender peacefully, thereby eliminating the disruption which would occur if battles and seiges, which they did not feel they could win in any event, were to occur. These conquests were sufficient to satiate Varnavaler's greed for power for a time.
In 3403I, Varnavaler the Young received a rather rude awakening when Arcalm was wrested from him by Rofyn Flanndis, King of Taralor and Prince of Eastern Estin. Varnavaler was forced to wait until late the following spring to counter-attack, as his armies were composed mainly of farmers who were then in the middle of their harvest. He lost no time in 3404I, however, and Arcalm was easily retaken.
Varnavaler would lose Arcalm to Rofyn twice more, and regain it both times, by the end of 3410I. In the spring of 3411I, Varnavaler's spies informed him that he would have a respite of at least a couple of years, but that Rofyn would be back, stronger than ever, after that time passed.
Varnavaler took council with his advisors, and they decided to move against Acro in order to further secure their position in the south. In the summer of 3411I, Varnavaler led his armies south once again, but the Acrites proved to be cunning. Their unorthodox methods of fighting were very effective, and Varnavaler's troops were heavily wounded. Varnavaler was forced to retreat for the winter, where he learned that Rofyn was dead, and there was little threat from the west.
The sense of urgency was gone, but Varnavaler was loath to admit defeat. In 3413I, after spending a year at home to rebuild his forces, Varnavaler again moved against Acro, this time with a larger army. He was again repulsed by the Acrites, who were more prepared for an invasion. There were high losses on both sides, but winter once again forced Varnavaler to retreat, although he wintered in Arcalm this time rather than returning to the Odic homeland.
In 3414I, Varnavaler finally took Acro, and returned triumphant to his home, after a year and a half abroad.
That fall, Varnavaler received the first of several shocks which would spell the downfall of the kingdom. The summer had been unusually hot and dry, and the harvest was very poor. He was forced to increase taxes in Arcalm and Gledarl, where the crops had not been hit as hard, in order to feed his countrymen and pay his army.
During the winter, there was an uprising in Acro. The K'Odic garrisons were demolished and the troops which were left behind were killed. On hearing the news, Varnavaler, already in a foul mood after spending the fall listening to complaints about the increased taxes, flew into a rage and killed his wife and youngest son. His eldest son, Varnalas, killed Varnavaler and took over the kingdom, changing his name to Lascalth to sever ties with the past.
In 3426I Lascalth arranged a treaty with Acro, which allowed for Acro self-government. The main terms of the treaty traded K'Odic protection of Acro for annual tribute. The treaty would last until 3453I.
In 3452I, Lascalth died, leaving the kingdom to his son, Lascorm. Lascorm returned to the policies of his grandfather, and in 3453I, he invaded Acro, which was caught by surprise and easily defeated. Lascorm levied heavy taxes and the tribute was increased. Mindful of the prior rebellious spirit of the Acrites, Lascorm decided to leave most of the army behind to enforce his edicts.
Rendrit and Tiet NationIn 3193I, Asmel, a charismatic but strategically untrained leader living west of the mountain range in eastern Chydar, decided to follow the lead of Varnavaler, and began to unite numerous foothill tribes. In 3195I, he felt that his armies were strong enough, and began looking for territory to conquer. He saw no threat from the north or east, so he moved south, assimilating tribes, and crushing those who resisted through the sheer numbers of his armies.
In 3196I, Asmel was assassinated by his general, Ureas, who then took over command of the armies and rule of the conquered area. Ureas took the armies, and struck west, leaving a third of his strength at home to defend it in case of rebellion from the south. While he was campaigning, there was internal strife in the homeland, and his allies were divided.
That fall, Ureas returned triumphant to his capital, after capturing and subduing much rich land, but found it closed against him. He laid seige to it throughout the winter. The next spring, the seige was broken by the arrival of rebels from the south. A huge battle ensued, and many were slain. The trust between tribes, which was created by Asmel, and strengthened by their co-operative victories, was lost in a single day, and the tribes scattered. There is hatred between tribes to this day.
Some tribes migrated over the mountains, and then north to the rich grasslands on the coast, where they would later form the loose alliance of tribes now known as Rendrit. Other tribes moved west, and still live a nomadic life ranging through the hills and plains as was their wont in days gone past. Still other tribes travelled slowly south. These tribes would be conquered by better trained invaders from the Spice Isles, and now form the larger part of the population of the Tiet Nation.
The Estarin KingdomIn the early 3200sI, the tribes on south-central and eastern Estin began to settle down, becoming more dependent on agriculture and relying less on hunting. Another factor in this trend was the series of bitterly cold winters, which led many to advocate permanent residences, which can provide more protection than even the best tents. The same was not true of the tribes west of the mountains, where the land is less fertile, and the winters less harsh.
Around 3230I, the tribes in Taralor Valley, now mainly settled in farms and small villages along the River Taral, began to suffer from raids by the nomads from the west, who were jealous of the easy life they saw in the valley. Scouts were sent out, and the enormity of the possible threat was realized. Messages were sent between villages, and a series of meetings were organized, which culminated in the formation of a loose coalition, intended to provide an organized defense against the raiders. Among the more important works of this coalition was the construction of a string of bell towers along the river, used to pass messages up and down the valley. These towers were manned continually from their completion in 3243I until 3456I.
For several decades, the western nomads continued to press at the borders, trying to move east into the more fertile valley. The few individuals who came in peace were welcomed, but the majority came bearing weapons. The invasions were largely unsuccessful for several reasons. Most importantly, the valley dwellers had horses, and were accustomed to fighting in the plains, while the westerners were used to fighting in the hills. Also, with each new success, the coalition gained supporters and grew stronger.
Through this period, trade between the valley and the eastern lands grew to new heights, as the demand for metal weapons and armour, which were not available locally, increased.
In 3382I, Rofyn Flanndis became the chieftain of a southern village. At the coalition meetings, he advocated a stronger military action: a counter-attack which would crush the strength of the barbarians, and make the valley safe for years to come. As his plans gained acceptance, he and his staunchest supporters withdrew their villages from the coalition, and formed a new alliance. By the fall of 3384I, Rofyn had the support of practically the entire valley, where people were beginning to call him the King of Estin. The next spring, he named himself King of Taralor, and established his capital at Rolorn.
For several years after his announcement, Rofyn was forced to maintain a low profile with his public policies, in order to placate those who were angered by his arrogance. By the time acceptance had grown to the point that he felt he could safely raise an army, he was beginning to see a greater threat from his nominal allies to the east, where a military alliance was beginning to emulate the valley's earlier success. The disorganized west could wait.
In 3399I, Rofyn took his army through Trader's Pass at the northern end of Taralor Valley, surprising the easterners, who were expecting an attack from the south, if at all. After a very few battles, and with minimal bloodshed, the east was defeated. The easy victory was seen as a sign of divine favour, an impression which was not discouraged by the invaders, and the alliance of many of the eastern tribes shifted to Rofyn, who gave himself the title Prince of Eastern Estin. In 3401I, to cement the ties to the east, Rofyn moved his capital to Cabay.
The Clash of the TitansAfter his great successes in Estin, Rofyn began to hunger for more wealth and power, and so he turned his gaze across the strait to the rich trading nation of Arcalm. In the summer of 3402I, he began sending spies to assess the situation. Later in the year, encouraged by the news he had received, Rofyn sent a number of agitators to prepare the way for the attack he was preparing. In the spring of 3403I, Rofyn launched his first naval offensive. The Calimites, true to form, hastily surrendered and provided assistance with the rounding up of K'Odic officials.
However, due to the continuing threat from the western tribes, Rofyn was unable to bring his full power to bear. Additionally, the strait caused supply difficulties which Rofyn and his advisors were not prepared to handle. As a result, when Varnavaler the Young retaliated in 3404I, Arcalm was quickly lost.
This scenario was repeated twice, as Rofyn retook Arcalm in the spring of 3406I and the fall of 3408I, and was repelled in the summer of 3407I and the spring of 3410I.
During the winter of 3410I, after his third defeat in Arcalm, Rofyn decided to move west against the barbarians. His plan was to diminish the western threat sufficiently that he could reduce defenses in Taralor Valley, thereby freeing manpower for future eastern campaigns.
The following spring he put his plan into action, but during the campaign he was killed in battle, and his sons split the kingdom. Rofyn II, the elder son, claimed the western portion of the kingdom, and restored the old capital at Rolorn. The younger son, Raylyn, claimed the eastern portion of the kingdom, and reaffirmed Cabay as his capital.
Between the years 3411I and 3443I, peace existed between the kingdoms of Eastern Estin and the newly renamed West Estin. The barbarian incursions had been somewhat lessened by Rofyn's abortive invasion, and the remainder were easily handled by the eastern-supplied garrisons of West Estin. Trade flourished, long-neglected construction was finally completed, and education was stressed. The kingdoms flourished, and there was much prosperity and happiness. This period is now referred to as the Golden age of Estin.
Turmoil in the Two KingdomsIn 3443I, relations between Eastern and West Estin began to deteriorate when King Rofyn II died under rather mysterious circumstances, and his son Flaryn took over. Two years later, the situation worsened when King Raylyn died, again under mysterious circumstances. Raylyn was succeeded by his son Ylmyn, who officially accused Flaryn of plotting Raylyn's demise, and all diplomatic relations were broken off.
In 3449I, Ylmyn was assassinated. Flaryn became the leading suspect when he married Ylmyn's widow and took control of Eastern Estin. To placate the population, Flaryn felt forced to effect a return to the ways of old. To this end, West Estin was returned to its traditional name of Taralor, and Eastern Estin was maintained as a separate country. He resurrected his grandfather's titles, King of Taralor and Prince of Eastern Estin, for himself, and used the fact that he was the eldest son of the eldest son of Rofyn to strengthen his claim to the throne.
Further, to gain eastern support, Flaryn moved his court to Cabay, and named his firstborn Rofyn III. Despite these measures, Flaryn was kept busy putting down revolts, mostly in Eastern Estin, until 3453.
3452I also saw the introduction of the new Flanndis scale, lovingly crafted by Flaryn, which retroactively dated the first year of Rofyn's rule (which Flaryn deemed to be 3382I) as 1 Flanndis. Thus, the first year in which the Flanndis scale was 69F. Today, it is used in conjunction with the Innereal scale on all official documents, but is still viewed mainly as a novelty by the average peasant.
The Birth of the Flanndis EmpireIn 3454I, Flaryn's rule was stable enough that he was able to turn his attention west to the barbarians, who had been growing ever stronger since Rofyn's death and the subsequent tribulations within the kingdom. A unified army, consisting of nearly equal numbers of troops from Eastern Estin and Taralor, was formed from volunteers, and training began in earnest through the winter.
The next spring, Flaryn personally led the army west, over the mountains. The unprepared barbarians were overwhelmed, and their warriors were massacred. Rofyn's dream of subduing the western threat was finally a reality, and eastern invasion could again be considered.
In 3456I, Flaryn followed where Rofyn had lead, and turned east against Arcalm. The supply problems which hampered Rofyn were overcome through dealings with Acro, which was unhappy under Odic rule. The all-important foothold was gained on the eastern continent.
Flaryn spent the following year cultivating relationships with the southern states of Odic. Trade and travel between the continents increased, which in turn increased the profits of the kingdoms, as well as many private merchants. As often as not, these profits were re-invested, creating more jobs and spreading the wealth through the lower class to a degree never seen before.
The summer of 3458I heralded the formation of the Flanndis Empire, Flaryn's pet project through much of the last two years. The political structure of the two kingdoms was completely reorganized, and it was revealed that several areas not formerly under Flaryn's direct control, most notably Zohmat and Lieyobl, would now become vassal states, self-governed but paying a tribute in goods and military service in return for protection.
The resulting empire covered the whole of Estin, excepting the area which the declaration officially named the Barbaric Westlands, and the Sidhe homeland of Lir. It also claimed all of Arcalm, which was an easy claim to back up. Its claims of Acro and Gledarl were not well received by Odic or the counties in question.
The announcement of the Flanndis Empire gave Flaryn a very strong bargaining position, which, after much negotiation, lead to the signing of a non-aggression and mutual assistance treaty between the Flanndis Empire and the Kingdom of Odic in 3460I. Neither side fully trusted the other, and rightly so, but the treaty was a good first step.
Representatives of the various occupied and otherwise claimed counties were also present at the treaty negotiations, and the land claims were resolved, to no-one's full satisfaction. The Flanndis Empire was allowed to keep control of Arcalm, in return for relinquishing their claim against Gledarl, which remained under the control of the Kingdom of Odic. Acro was relatively satisfyed with being granted the same status as Lieyobl and Zohmat.
This is not to say that everything was rosy in Estin. By 3464I, the kingdoms of Zohmat and Lieyobl felt that they had not received the full benefits they were promised with their membership in the Flanndis Empire. They met secretly, and plotted against Flaryn, and the following year they announced their withdrawal.
The Current State of AffairsThis brings us to the current year, 3467I, or 86F.
From this point, Erquineoller's document proceeded to make several observations about the then-current world, as well as a large number of predictions, only a handful of which came to pass.
This document is significant for many reasons, despite the presence of several assertions (especially those in the section regarding the Sidhe) which are now known to be false.
It is the only document of the time to take a neutral stance towards the politics of the day; most such essays show a strong tendency toward propaganda rather than fact.
It was the last thing of importance written by Erquineoller, who appears to have died before the end of the year.
It also indicates a much more widespread knowledge than was available to the general public, many of whom regarded Rendrit and Tiet only as legends, similar to Inelen, if they had even heard the names at all. How Erquineoller came to have any knowledge at all of the history of these areas is a mystery which puzzles historians to this day.
The next document is an excerpt taken from a scroll written by an anonymous scribe who lived about the same time as Erquineoller. We include it only to show the contrast between the style of Erquineoller and that of most of his contemporaries.
God-King: The Glorious Rule of RofynAlthough only the wisest of sages knew it at the time, the year 1 (then called 3382) was to herald the beginning of a new age. Rofyn Flanndis, future God-King, received His first command as the ruler of southern Estin. Over the next two years, through brilliant strategy and leadership, He united the entire Taralor Valley, and was recognized as King.
Time passed as He was held back in His planning by poor advice. At last, in 18, He tired of waiting, and took His mighty army to the east. His tactics took the enemy completely by surprise, and they were subdued without a single loss to His army. It was this victory that finally convinced the people that their ruler was not a mere mortal, but rather ruled by divine right.
Rofyn then turned His eyes further to the east, across the ocean to the rich lands of Arcalm, then controlled by the pagan Kingdom of Odic. He ordered an attack fleet built. The resulting armada sailed in 21, and was the grandest sight ever seen. The Calimites, who had heard tell of Rofyn and His mighty army, surrendered without a fight. Through treachery most foul, Rofyn's noble conquest was hampered, and the foothold was lost.
Two years later, Rofyn again took Arcalm in a mighty battle, but the following year agreed to return the land to Odic in return for certain economic favours. These favours were not delivered upon, so Rofyn again sailed against and easily conquered Arcalm in 27. In 29, He showed His divine trust and forgiveness when He again returned the fertile land to Odic.
It is now the year 30, and Rofyn has turned to matters at home, where barbarians have been attacking along the border. There are now none who dispute His divinity. The barbarians will quickly be subdued by Rofyn's mighty army, and His Kingdom will live for all time.
Of course as we well know, Rofyn was killed during the attack on the barbarians, and his sons divided the kingdom between them. This document is only one of hundreds written by both sides to glorify their rulers.